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Earth Science

What is Earth Science?

Earth Science is all about how the earth evolved over time. It also tells us about the rest of the universe and its impact on our beautiful home, the planet Earth.

i) Scientific Methods
ii) Scientific Models

i) Geology
ii) Oceanography
iii) Climatology and Meteorology
iv) Astronomy
v) Other Branches of Earth Science

The Earth’s Surface

The Earth’s surface looks like it’s the same always, but when you look closer and you’ll see that it keeps changing – new land forms and old ones disappear.

i) Location and Direction
ii) Topography

i) Maps and Map Projections
ii) Topographic Maps
iii) Computer Generated Maps and GPS


Minerals are naturally occurring substances that do not have a biological origin but they help your body grow, develop and stay healthy. Find out all about minerals.

i) Formation and Identification of Minerals
ii) Mining
iii) Uses of Minerals


They are very tiny grains of different minerals, compressed together in chemical reaction to form a bigger mass. Rocks make up non-water part of the earth’s crust.

i) Rock Cycle
ii) Types of Rocks

i) Crystallization and Composition

i) Sediments
ii) Sedimentary Rock Formation

i) Metamorphism

Earth's Energy

i) Energy, Fuel and Heat
ii) Types of Energy Resources

i) Solar Energy
ii) Water Power
iii) Wind Power
iv) Biomass
v) Geothermal Energy

i) Fossil Fuels
ii) Coal
iii) Oil
iv) Natural Gas
v) Nuclear Energy

Plate Tectonics

i) Crust and Lithosphere
ii) Mantle
iii) Core

i) Evidence for Continental Drift

i) Bathymetry
ii) Seafloor Magnetism
iii) The Seafloor Spreading Hypothesis

i) The Earth’s Tectonic Plates
ii) Plate Boundaries
iii) Movement of Plates and Interplate Activity


i) Geological Structures
ii) Types of Stress
ii)Stress and Mountains

i) What Causes Earthquakes?
ii) Earthquake Zones
iii) Seismic Waves

i) Measuring Earthquakes
ii) Mercalli Intensity Scale
iii) Predicting Earthquakes

i) Earthquake Damages
ii) Safe Structures
iii) Safety Measures


i) Formation and Occurrence
ii) Hotspots

i) Types of Eruptions
ii) Magma and Lava
iii) Predicting Volcanic Eruptions

i) Composite Volcanoes
ii) Shield Volcanoes
iii) Cinder Cones
iv) Super Volcanoes

i) Landforms from Lava
ii) Landforms from Magma
iii) Hot Springs and Geysers

Weathering and Soil Formation

i) Mechanical Weathering
ii) Chemical Weathering
iii) Differential Weathering

i) Characteristics and Importance
ii) Formation, Texture and Composition
iii) Horizons and Profiles
iv) Types of Soil
v) Soil Conservation

Erosion and Deposition

i) By Streams and Rivers
ii) By Groundwater

i) Wave Action
ii) Wave Deposition
iii) Protecting Shorelines

i) Transport of Particles by Wind
ii) Types of Sand Dunes

i) Glaciers – Formation and Movement
ii) Glacial Erosion
iii) Glacial Deposition

i) Downhill Movement of Material
ii) Types of Movement

The History of the Earth

i) Geologic Time
ii) Relative and Absolute Dating of Rocks
iii) The Geologic Time Scale

i)The Earth and the Solar System
ii)The Earth’s Atmosphere

i) Diversity of Life
ii) Adaptations and Evolutions
iii) Fossils
iv) Phanerozoic Eon

Earth's Fresh Water and Oceans

i) The Water Cycle
ii) Distribution of Water

i) Surface Water
ii) Ground Water

i) Understanding the Ocean
ii) Waves, Tides and Currents
iii) The Seafloor Resources
iv) Ocean Life

The Earth's Atmosphere

i) Layers of the Atmosphere
ii) Energy Sources
iii) Wind and Wind Belts

i) Atmospheric Water
ii) Changes in Weather
iii) Storms
iv) Forecasting the Weather

i) What is Climate?
ii) Climates Around the World
iii) Climate Change

Ecosystems and Man

i) Biological Communities
ii) Members of the Ecosystem
iii) Flow of Matter and Energy in the Ecosystem
iv) The Carbon Cycle

i) Population Growth
ii) Sustainable Development


i) Soil Erosion due to Human Actions
ii) Hazardous Waste
iii) Preventing Land Pollution

i)Human Uses of Water
ii) Water Distribution and Shortage
iii) Water Pollution
iv) Safeguarding Water

i) Types and Causes of Air Pollution
ii) Effects of Air Pollution
iii) Reducing Air Pollution

Conservation of Resources

i) Common Resources in Use
ii) Human Population and Resource Use
iii) Resource Availability
iv) Conserving Natural Resources

i) Obtaining Energy
ii) Energy Efficiency
iii) Energy Conservation


i) Telescopes
ii) Early Exploration
iii) Recent Exploration

i) Planet Earth and Its Motions
ii) The Moon
iii) The Sun
iv) The Sun and the Earth-Moon System

i) The Inner Planets
ii) The Outer Planets
iii) Other Objects in the Solar System

i) Stars
ii) Galaxies
iii) The Universe

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