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Chemistry

Introduction to Chemistry

They say the universe started with a ‘Big Bang’ releasing a huge amount of matter and energy into space. That is the moment that marked the emergence of Chemistry. So, what is Chemistry? Let’s learn more.
Who doesn’t like ‘mystery stories’? Well, Chemistry is a story full of mysteries. It is the story about what you are and what I am. From dust to diamond and germs to the tallest trees or the biggest animals – all are made up of chemicals in different combinations. Jump into the mystery box to know more.

i) The Study of Chemistry
ii) The Scientific Method
iii) Branches of Chemistry

Here’s a question for you. ‘What do you have in common with a rock, a glass of water, man, animal and air?’ Tricky question? Well, actually it isn’t. The answer is ‘Matter’. Everything around you matters because all of it is ‘Matter’. Learn all about it here.

i)The States of Matter
ii)Pure Substances and Mixtures
iii)Elements and Compounds

The property of an object describes the object and how it responds to things around it. For instance, water differs from ice or steam, although they are different forms of the same substance. Know more about it here.

i)The States of Matter
ii)Pure Substances and Mixtures
iii)Elements and Compounds

‘Energy’ and ‘Matter’ are the two sides of the same coin. Everything you see around you has energy, or in scientific terms, ‘is energy’. Neither matter nor energy can be created or destroyed. Interesting …!

i)Types of Energy
ii)The Law of Conservation of Energy
iii)Heat, Temperature and Specific Heat Capacity

Atoms, Molecules and Ions

We learn that anything around us that has mass and occupies space is matter. What is matter made up of? Try cutting a piece of cheese in half again and again. At one point, you reach a size that is too small to be cut. Matter is made up of such unbreakable particles called Atoms, which cannot be seen even through a regular microscope. Molecules are made up of Atoms and charged atoms/molecules are called Ions.
‘Atom’ in Greek means ‘cannot cut’; ‘a’ means ‘not’ and ‘tomos’ means ‘cut’. So, are atoms really indivisible? Scientists later proved otherwise. They divided atoms into subatomic particles but the name stuck on. Atoms are indeed the smallest indivisible parts of an element, because once they are broken down, we no longer have the original element.

i)Early Ideas about Atoms
ii)The Law of Conservation of Mass
iii)The Law of Definite Composition
iv)The Law of Multiple Proportions
v)John Dalton and The Atomic Theory
vi)Cathode Rays
vii)Milkman’s Oil drop Experiment

Take a paragraph. It has many sentences each made up of words. Words can further be divided into letters. So, letters are the smallest units here. Similarly matter is made up of molecules, which are in turn made up of atoms. Atoms can be divided into smaller units called subatomic particles. Learn more about them here.

i)Atomic Structure
ii)Atomic Number and Mass Number
iii)The Periodic Table
iv)Molecules and Ions

Think about your relationships in life. You are a son or daughter /sibling/acquaintance/friend/enemy or any other bond that you name. Chemicals too form bonds with other chemicals. Each bond is different in strength. And just like humans, elements may share things with or rob things from each other. Amazing… Isn’t it?

i)Chemical Bonding
ii)Ionic Bonds and Covalent Bonds

One of the fun things of growing up is developing a signature for yourself. The focus is to make it unique and uncopiable. Similarly ‘formulas’ are the signatures of the different elements and their chemical combinations. Chemicals are turning out more like humans. Interesting!!

i)Molecular Formulas
ii)Empirical Formulas
iii)Formulas of Ionic Compounds

Now you must be really surprised. They have names as well? Yes they do and very catchy ones too. This lesson says it all.

i)Naming Ionic and Molecular Compounds
ii)Naming Acids, Bases and Hydrates
iii)Naming Familiar Inorganic Compounds
iv)Introduction to Hydrocarbons

Periodic Properties

Each of us is different from others in so many ways. So also are the various elements /chemicals around us. In spite of being different, we can be grouped based on certain similarities, being tall/short, thin/fat, oval-faced/square-faced etc. In the same way, elements too are sorted out into groups according to their properties. This classification is drawn out in the form of a table called the ‘Periodic Table’ and the properties which they show are called the ‘Periodic Properties’.
When we hear of a new brand, we’d be on the lookout for the catalogue, which will tell us all about the products available. Well, the periodic table is the catalogue of Chemistry. It tells us about all the elements available in nature and a study of the table gives us an idea of why elements or chemicals react in the way they do.

i)The History of the Periodic Table
ii)Position on the Periodic Table
iii)The Aufbau Principle
iv)Hund’s Rule
v)Electronic Configuration of Anions and Cations
vi)The Shielding Effect and the Effective Nuclear Charge
vii)Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism

Chemical Equations

Chemicals may seem to be like us but they can’t speak for themselves. We can explain our relationships or ‘bonds’ with others but what do chemicals do? That is why we have ‘formulas & equations’ When chemicals react with each other, new products are formed. Equations tell us how this happens.
We spoke earlier about ‘bonds’. The nature of the bond depends on the nature of the individuals forming the bond. Here in the case of elements, bonds are formed on the basis of the distance between them and how positive or negative they are. So how is that related to the mass of the atom? Get more information here.

i)Atomic Mass
ii)Mass Spectrometry
iii) The Mole and Avogadro’s Number
iv)Molar Mass  of Compounds
v)Conversion between Mass and Number of Moles
vi)Compound Compositions

How do we define our relationships? The first thing that comes to our mind is the number of people involved and the extent of their bonding. This is exactly what an ’empirical formula’ specifies – the number and the names of the elements forming the bond.

i)Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Does the word ‘stoichiometry’ scare you? Well it shouldn’t because it only means measuring the number of atoms before and after a reaction. To make it interesting, let’s think of the game, ‘musical chairs’. We count the number of chairs and people before and after each round of music. That is musical chair stoichiometry. Here we’ll check out reaction stoichiometry.

i)Amount of Reactants and Products
ii)Molar Ratios
iii)Mole-to-Mole Conversions
iv)Mass-to-Mass Conversions
v)Mass-to-Mole Conversions
vi)Limiting Reagents
vii)Calculating Theoretical and Percent Yield

Chemical Reactions

What happens when you bump into someone? One of the possibilities is that nothing happens. You just walk away. But that’s not always the case. You may hurt yourself. Now imagine two molecules, which look like humans, bumping into each other. If something does happen, it may be a bit weirder like the arm of one molecule getting attached to the hip of the other. Funny, isn’t it? One element bumping into another can be called a reaction.
Each relationship has different requirements. Some require sharing and others borrowing. Chemicals too either share or borrow electrons to form bonds. The strength of the bond depends on the number of electrons shared or borrowed. We’ll learn more about the bonds in this chapter.

i)Electron Transfer and Ionic Bonding
ii)Lattice Energy and Formulas of Ionic Compounds
iii)Ionic vs. Covalent Bond Character
iv)Single Covalent Bonds
v)Double and Triple Covalent Bonds
vi)Covalent Molecules – Physical Properties
vii)Covalent Compounds vs. Ionic Compounds
viii)Valence Electrons in Lewis Symbols
ix)Lewis Symbols for Atoms
x)Lewis Structures for Covalent Molecules and Polyatomic Ions

Negativity in a person is something that drives people away from him. In an atom it is exactly the opposite. It is that factor which attracts other atoms. This property measures an atom’s ability to attract electrons to it.

i)Electronegativity and Oxidation Number
ii)Bond Polarity
iii)Resonance

‘Star Wars’ is one of the most watched movies on aliens and space wars. Back when it started as a television series, youngsters were crazy about collecting the star wars action figure toys, especially the big eight ones on the good side. If you had seven of them, you would so desperately want to have the last one to complete the set. The Octet Rule in Chemistry follows the same principle. The only difference here is that the action heroes are electrons. Let’s learn more.

i)The Octet Rule
ii)The incomplete Octet
iii)Odd Electron Molecules
iv)The Expanded Octet

When you plan to draw something, you have a particular shape in mind because you know what it looks like. So how do you draw a molecule? The shape of a molecule depends on the kind of bonds it has. When you draw the picture of a family, the space required depends on the number of members, whether they are sitting or standing etc. Similarly, molecular shape and size depends on the kind of bond and the distance between the atoms forming the molecule.

i)The VSEPR Theory
ii)Applying the VSEPR Model
iii)Molecular Geometries and Lone Electron Pairs
iv)The Valence Bond Theory
v)sp3, sp2 and sp Hybridization
vi)Hybridization in Molecules with Double and Triple Bonds
vii)The Molecular Orbital Theory
viii)Bonding and Antibonding Orbitals
ix)Bond Order
x)LCAO
xi)Diatomic and Polyatomic Molecules

Gases

Have you ever played with a syringe? Try this, you’ll find it intriguing. Pull out the piston of a syringe to the maximum level. Now, close the open tip of the syringe tightly with your finger and try to push the piston back in. It doesn’t move back easily. Similarly, pull out the piston a centimeter or two. Again, close the tip with your finger and then try to pull out the piston. This time the piston does get pulled back but moves back inside the moment you let go of it. You must be surprised. The syringe looks empty. Then what is it that pulls the syringe back in or pushes it out. It’s the air inside. Gases may not be visible like solids or liquids but they do occupy space.
Gases may be invisible but the properties they exhibit will make you wonder. Let’s take weight as an example. Try weighing two balloons of the same size, shape and material, one empty and one filled with air. The filled one will definitely weigh more than the empty one. Gas occupies space, has weight and exerts pressure as you saw in the syringe experiment. Many more properties coming your way.

i)Gas as a State of Matter
ii)Elemental Gases
iii)SI Units of Pressure

Everything in nature is governed by laws, and so are gases. These laws tell us how gases behave and why. There are a total of 5 important gas laws and each one has a story to it. The interesting fact is that all these scientists were in fact speaking about the same thing but from different viewpoints. That’s how we have the Ideal Gas Law.

i)Boyle’s Law
ii)Charles’ Law and Gay Lussac’s Law
iii)Avogadro’s Law
iv)The Ideal Gas Equation
v)Molar Mass of Gases and Gas Mixtures
vi)Gas Stoichiometry
vii)Dalton’s Law
viii)Kinetic Molecular Theory and Gas Laws
ix)Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
x)Collision Frequency and Root Mean Square Speed
xi)Gas Diffusion and Effusion

We’ve heard about people misbehaving, but gases? Well you’d be surprised to know that gases almost never behave themselves. Why is this so? What causes them to deviate from ideal behavior? Let’s find out more.

i)The Effect of Finite Volume and Intermolecular Forces
ii)Van der Waals’ Equation
iii)Real Gases
iv)Air Pollution
v)Ozone Depletion

Solids and Liquids

Imagine you are sailing on a boat. How would you describe the things around you? Let’s start off with the boat. The boat is hard and strong, so we know it is solid. The water around you is liquid. The wind blowing in your face is the air and it is gas. Everything around us can be categorized either as solids, liquids or gases. Let’s learn more about solids and liquids.
A great majority of the things you interact with are solids. How do you describe solids? Most often, we use words like hard and strong but solids are not all the same. Metals, for instance can be moulded into different shapes whereas rocks can only be broken down. Solids like rubber, clay, plastic are all soft but in different ways. In short, solids vary in the way they look, feel and behave. Learn more about solids here.

i)Intermolecular Forces
ii)Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter
iii)X-Ray Crystallography
iv) Crystals  and Crystal Structure
v)The Electron Sea Model
vi)Doping – Connectivity in Semiconductors
vii)Amorphous Solids

Can you name something that is shapeless? The answer is simple. All liquids are shapeless or rather it takes the shape of the container. Liquids when not in a container tend to flow but because some are thicker than others, the rate of flow differs – some flow fast while others are slow. Want to know more? It’s all here…

i)The Structure and Properties of Water
ii)Surface Tension, Viscosity and Capillary Action

The thought of ‘Ice cream’ brings a smile to every face. Having an ice cream stick on a hot sunny day is risky business. I’m sure you know why. It’ll start melting even before you know it and that is utterly disappointing. Some solids change to liquid at room temperature while others need to be melted down. But what exactly happens inside a solid when it changes to liquid form? Find out here.

i)Phase Transitions
ii)Supercritical Fluids
iii)Heating Curve for Water
iv)Features of a Phase Diagram
v)Interpreting a Phase Diagram

Solutions

A solution is basically a mixture of substances, which behaves like an individual substance. For example, in a salt solution we cannot see the salt but we know it is there and although we see the water, it tastes different from plain water.
When we think of solutions, it’s either a salt or a sugar solution that comes to our mind, but solutions can also be solids or gases. Surprised? The air that we breathe in is a solution of different gases. The 14 carat gold used to make jewellery is also a solution. So what are the properties of solution?

i)Intermolecular Forces
ii)Entropy Changes
iii)Heats of Hydration
iv)Aqueous Solutions
v)Colligative  Properties
vi)Factors Affecting Solubility

Try dissolving different amounts of salt in 3 separate glasses. Taste a drop of each. They taste different because of the amount of salt added to each of them. So the concentration of a solution is based on the amount of substance dissolved in it. Let’s learn how to measure the concentration.

i)Molarity
ii)Molality
iii)Mole Percent
iv)Dilutions  of Solutions
v)Molarity in Solution Calculations
vi)Solution Stoichiometry
vii)Solubility Equilibria
viii)Qualitative Chemical Analysis

When you dust your home, you can actually see the dust particles floating around in the air, but after a while they settle down. This is because dust in the air is a suspension. Now let’s look at a glass of milkshake. You can see tiny particles floating around but they do not settle down. Such solutions are called Colloids.

i)Suspensions
ii)Hydrophilic Colloids
iii)Hydrophobic Colloids

Chemical Kinetics

Have you ever been to a ‘Demolition Derby’? It’s a sport where vehicles ram into each other. Something similar happens during a reaction. Atoms while moving around collide with each other resulting in a reaction. The impact of the collision decides the extent of reaction. Kinetics in Chemistry deals with measuring the rate of Chemical reactions.
The winner of a demolition derby is the one who successfully demolishes all other vehicles and stays on till the end. A successful reaction is one where the number of reactants gets reduced and the number of products increases. In both cases, the impact of the bang depends on the speed of the colliding particles and the point of the impact. We’ll tell you more in this lesson.

i)Measuring the Rate of Reactions
ii)Reaction Stoichiometry
iii)First Order, Second Order & Zero Order Reactions
iv)The Integrated Rate Law
v)Half-Life

To win a race you need to get a head start. To crack the shell of a walnut, you need the right amount of force when hammering it. Otherwise, you can hammer all day and get nothing out of it. Similarly to start off a reaction, the atoms require a minimum threshold of energy called the activation energy.

i)Factors that Affect the Rate of a Reaction
ii)The Collision Theory
iii)The Transition State Theory
iv)The Arrhenius Equation
v)Elementary Reactions and their Rate Laws
vi)Rate-Determining Steps
vii)Steady State Approximation
viii)Experimental Determination of Reaction Rates

Bread and cake are favorites all around the world. What makes them soft and fluffy? It is the yeast that is added to it. Yeast has enzymes which help in leavening the dough. Many of the processes that take place within our body too use certain chemicals called catalysts. A catalyst is a substance which helps speed up a reaction without itself being affected.

i)Homogeneous Catalysis
ii)Heterogeneous Catalysis
iii)Enzyme Catalysis

Chemical Equilibrium

Science is all about balance and balance is equilibrium. Most of the things that you see around you run in a balanced state. Everything turns topsy-turvy when this balance is disturbed. Let’s take the simple example of adding salt to your favorite dish. More or less of salt will totally change the taste of the dish. So also are reactions. Every reaction has its own state of equilibrium.
Most chemical reactions undergo a reversal of the process called Reverse Reactions. So a state of equilibrium can be reached only when the forward and backward reactions are perfectly balanced with each other. Learn all about it here.

ii)Heterogeneous and Multiple Equilibria
iii)Specialized Equilibrium Constants
iv)Reaction Quotients
v)Gas-Phase Reactions and Equilibrium Constant
vi)Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations
vii)Le Chatelier’s Principle
viii)Catalysts and Equilibrium

Acids and Bases

Have you tasted an acid? Your immediate answer would be a definite ‘no’. But you are wrong. Why? Because you have tasted lemon, orange, berries, vinegar and the list goes on. Yes, these are all acids, the weak ones. You also produce an acid in your stomach that helps in digestion. You are familiar with bases as well. The soaps and detergents that you use daily are bases by nature.
Acids are sour to taste and bases taste bitter but you can’t go around tasting acids or bases because only some of them are edible.

i)Acids
ii)Diprotic, Polyprotic, Binary and Oxo acids
iii)Bases
iv)Acid  and Base Dissociation Constants
v)Acid-Base Properties of Water
vi)pH, pOH and other p Scales
vii)Acid-Base Properties of Salts
viii)Hydrolysis
ix)Hydroxides
x)Lewis Acids and Bases

The Acid-Base Equilibrium

Reactions between acids and bases always involve a donation and a receipt. The acid is the donor and the base the acceptor. Since acid-base reactions are reversible, they eventually reach a state of equilibrium. A notable feature is that all acid-base chemistry takes place in the presence of water. Water itself can act both as an acid and a base. Surprising, isn’t it.
Stomach acidity is a common problem. Do you know why? Well, here’s the explanation. Your stomach secretes Hydrochloric acid (HCl) along with the digestive juices. It works as a double agent- by destroying the germs coming in and acting as a catalyst. When you eat too much of certain foods, the acidity/the amount of acid in your stomach increases causing aches. And what do you do to make things fine? You drink or chew on an antacid, which is really a base. So, what actually happens here…?

i)Aqueous Solutions
ii)Homogenous and Heterogeneous Equilibria
iii)The Common Ion Effect
iv)pH of a Buffer Solution
v)Preparing a Buffer Solution with a Specific pH
vi)The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
vii)Conjugate Bases , Conjugate Acids and Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
viii)Buffer Range and Capacity
ix)Acid-Base Titrations
x)Polyprotic Acid Titrations
xi)Acid-Base Indicators

Thermochemistry

Thermo chemistry basically explains the relationship between chemistry and energy and because it’s ‘thermo’, it’s related to temperature, which in turn is related to heat energy. If something has energy, it means it has the capacity to do work. In Chemistry, work done is referred to as Reactions. So, simply put, thermochemistry is all about how much heat energy goes into and out of a reaction.
Energy is everywhere and in everything. Energy cannot be created or destroyed. We can say that the amount of energy in the universe is constant. Since everything is/has energy, can we say that everything or all matter is constant? We’ll learn all about it here.

i)Energy and Chemical Reactions
ii)The Three Laws of Thermodynamics
iii)Enthalpy and Internal Energy
iv)Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
v)Spontaneous & Nonspontaneous Reactions
vi)Entropy & Absolute Energy
vii)Gibb’s Free Energy
viii)Thermochemical Equations
ix)Specific Heat and Heat Capacity
x)Calorimetry
xi)Hess’ Law
xii)Heat of Solution

Can you think of anything that you can do without the help of energy? Don’t bother to strain for an answer. Everything we do, standing, sitting, holding something, even sleeping uses energy. Only the amount of energy varies. Sometimes energy is obtained from external sources. Let’s get familiar with the different sources of energy and how useful they are.

i)Sources of Energy
ii)Energy Consumption
iii)Fossil Fuel Use and Environmental Problems
iv)New Energy Sources

Electrochemistry

Who hasn’t seen and enjoyed the cartoon series, Tom & Jerry! Have you seen the episode where Tom gets electrocuted? Wow you should see the way the fur on his body stands out. What do you think happens when electricity passes through something? Electricity is the flow of electrons. So when you say that electricity passes through, it is actually a string of electrons passing through. The answers are all here in this lesson.
Electrochemistry is all about the flow of electrons. To be more specific, it is mainly the oxidation and reduction reactions, where electrons are exchanged between atoms. Let’s make it simpler by comparing electrons to money. The more money you have, the greater your friends circle. So also, the more the number of electrons atoms have, the better their bonding ability.

i)Balancing Redox Equations
ii)Electrochemical Cells
iii)Voltaic and Electrolytic Cells
iv) Reduction Potentials
v)Thermodynamics of Redox Reactions
vi)Cell Potentials
vii)The Nernst Equation

Have you seen a lemon battery used as a demonstration in laboratories? Batteries are an inevitable part of modern life. Almost everything around you runs on a battery. What exactly is a battery? How does it make things work? Let’s learn all about batteries and how they help us.

i)The Dry Cell Battery
ii)The Mercury Battery
iii)The Lead Storage Battery
iv)The Lithium-Ion Battery
v)Other Rechargeable Batteries
vi)Fuel Cells
vii)Electrolysis

Which is your favorite car? The answer to this question includes the color of the car as well. Why are vehicles painted? Is it because people like different colors? Not exactly. Have you noticed that we paint most of the metallic objects – even things which people may not choose by color? We do it to protect the metal from corrosion, meaning becoming useless like bread goes stale. What causes corrosion and how can it prevented? Come let’s learn.

i)Corrosion
ii)Preventing Corrosion

Nuclear Chemistry

We all have our own favorite superheroes. They have immense strength and super powers. There is a story to tell how each superhero acquired his/her unique powers but the most common one involves a nuclear accident or exposure to radioactive substances. What are these special substances and how do they change people? It is only appropriate to mention here that such things happen only in stories. In reality, radioactive substances cause the cells in the body to change. How these changes manifest, cannot be predicted. So what is radioactivity?
It’s not the activity of the radio, as the name suggests. Radioactivity involves changes within the nucleus of an atom. During normal chemical reactions, it is the electrons that are actively involved. Here it is either the protons or the neutrons getting involved plus huge amounts of energy. This tremendous amount of energy can solve many of mankind’s power problems but in the wrong hands can bring about total destruction. Wow!

i)Discovery of Radioactivity
ii)Kinds of Radioactive Decay
iii)Rate of Radioactive Decay
iv)Radiometric Dating
v)Nuclear Binding Energy and Mass Defect
vi)Nuclear Reactions and Equations

Fission is breaking up into parts whereas fusion is combining to become one. It’s not as simple as it sounds because these are two of the greatest forces that mankind has come across. Both the reactions give out huge amounts of energy. Fusion is the secret behind the sun’s energy and fission is what powers the nuclear/ atomic reactors.

i)Nuclear Fission
ii)The Atomic Bomb
iii)Nuclear Reactors
iv)Nuclear Fusion
v)Fusion Reactors
vi)The Hydrogen Bomb

In stories, we may become heroes with unmatchable strength and unique powers. In real life on the other hand, radioactive substances can have good or bad effects. People living in areas affected by nuclear mishaps suffer the consequences generation after generation – some are disfigured and others suffer from incurable health conditions. But nuclear radiation is not always bad. Under controlled conditions, radiation can prove to be helpful as well, especially in the field of medicine. Sounds incredible!

i)Acute Radiation Syndrome
ii)Cancer and Radiation
iii)Genetic Defects
iv)Radiation Dosimetry
v)Nuclear Medicine

Periodic Trends

The periodic table looks like a bunch of boxes arranged in a particular fashion. Each box/block represents an element. Why are they arranged as they are? Well, although each element is different from the others, they still have certain similarities. It is just like saying that each one of us is unique yet similar in many ways. So, what are the factors that decide the position of an element on the periodic table? It’s all here in this lesson.
Initially, elements were arranged according to their atomic weights. Later however, it was seen that there was a periodic pattern in the relationship between the elements. The characteristics of the elements were getting repeated at regular intervals. All this sounds so simple now but it took a lot of effort and deliberation to get to the present periodic table and one name stands out deserving more attention than others, that of the scientist Mendeleev.

i)Effective Nuclear Charge
ii)Atomic Radius and Ionic Radius
iii)Ionization Energy
iv) Electronegativity
v)Electron Affinity

Hydrogen is the most important element in the s-Block. It is sometimes referred to as Nature’s Fuel. Hydrogen has so many specialties. It’s the first element in the periodic table and the most abundant element in the universe. More than 70 percent of the Sun’s chemical composition is Hydrogen. The sun gets its energy from the fusion of Hydrogen atoms to form Helium. We can go on about Hydrogen, but there are other important members in this group. They are the silvery soft, extremely reactive Alkali metals and the reactive Alkaline Earth metals that we find in fireworks, vitamins and even in our own veins.

i)Hydrogen
ii)The Alkali Metals
iii)The Alkaline Earth Metals
iv)Biological Significance

This is a family that has a variety of members. They include the metals, the non metals and the metalloids. Some of them are the most electron-hungry elements whereas others are the most nonreactive ones. Some  are found abundantly in the earth’s crust while others have just been recently discovered. Still others are the most essential to life. Learn all about them here.

i)Boron
ii)Carbon
iii)Silicon
iv)Nitrogen
v)Phosphorous
vi)Oxygen
vii)Sulphur
viii)The Halogens
ix)The Noble Gases
x)Biological Significance

These are also called the ‘Transition Elements’. In this family, we have some of the most expensive metals like gold, silver and platinum as well as the most commonly used metals like iron, copper, zinc etc. They are both malleable and ductile and easily form alloys with other elements. The liquid metal, Mercury is also a member of this family.

i)Properties of Transition Metals
ii)Lanthanides
iii)Actinides
iv)Titanium
v)Chromium
vi)Manganese
vii)Iron
viii)Copper
ix)Silver
x)Mercury
xi)Biological Significance

This is a special class of complex compounds, where a centrally placed metal atom is surrounded by non-metal atoms or groups of atoms, joined by chemical bonds. Examples of such compounds that are familiar to us are chlorophyll, haemoglobin, Vit B12, dyes, etc.

i)Naming Coordination Compounds
ii)Oxidation Numbers in Metals
iii)Coordination Number, Ligands and Geometries
iv)Isomers
v)Valence Bond Theory
vi)Crystal Field Theory
vii)Octahedral Complexes
viii)Tetrahedral and Square Planar Complexes
ix)Color and Magnetic Properties
x)Reactions of Coordination Compounds
xi)Metallurgy
xii)Chemical Analysis
xiii)Chelating and Coloring Agents
xiv)Biomolecules

Organic Chemistry

Have you ever wondered what you are made up of? What do you have in common with all the other living things? Want all the answers? Then, welcome to the world of Organic Chemistry. All organic compounds are connected to nature and contain carbon. The word ‘Organic’ comes from the idea that carbon compounds could only be created by living things. Now we know a lot more about carbon compounds and that they can be produced in the laboratory but the name remains.
So, what is ‘Organic Chemistry’? It is the chemistry of life and Carbon is the element of life. Carbon is the basis of almost all the biological molecules. Any compound containing Carbon is called an organic compound. They are also referred to as ‘Hydrocarbons’, because carbon and hydrogen are the most common elements in these compounds. Learn all about Organic compounds here.

i)Functional Groups
ii)The Chemistry of Life
iii)Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
iv)Alkenes and Alkynes
v)Aromatic Hydrocarbons
vi)Alcohols
vii)Ethers
viii)Aldehydes and Ketones
ix)Carboxylic Acids
x)Esters
xi)Amines

Polymers

Do you know that Billiard balls were initially made of ivory? Hard to believe, isn’t it? There was a time when only wealthy people could afford to play the game. When ivory was getting more expensive there was an urgent need to identify a replacement for ivory billiard balls. John Wesley Hyatt, an inventor, came up with a substitute, ‘nitrocellulose’, got from mixing nitric acid with cotton. Thus synthetic polymer came into being. Today commercial polymers are available in different colors, textures and strengths. The next question that comes to mind is, ‘Are there Natural Polymers as well?’ Find out in the next level.
Living bodies are made up of a variety of polymers. They are the natural polymers, ‘of the body, by the body and for the body’. A polymer is a complex molecule made up of single units called monomers. They are called macromolecules because they are huge molecules made up of thousands or more atoms. Proteins, for example, are made up of single units called Amino acids. Some of the polymers we are familiar with are Proteins, DNA, RNA, Fat, Starch etc.

i)Monomers and Polymers
ii)Types of Polymers

Lipids are commonly called fats. Yes, oil, butter, cheese are all fats. Lipids are composed of smaller units called fatty acids and glycerol and they are storehouses of energy, which is why the body stores energy in the form of fat. If you eat food that has more quantity of fat than the body requires, the excess fat is stored by the body as a reservoir of energy. Lipids are a lot more important than just being energy stores. Find out more…

i)Lipid Molecules
ii)Phospholipids
iii)Steroids

When you feel tired, what is it that gives you an energy boost? Most often, it’s a sugary drink, which contains lots of glucose. Again, the most important meal of the day, they say, is breakfast in which bread, cornflakes, oats etc. are major constituents. These are all carbohydrates. The basic unit of Carbohydrates is called a Saccharide. Glucose is a monosaccharide whereas bread is a Polysaccharide. There’s more to learn…

i)Monosaccharide’s
ii)Disaccharides
iii)Polysaccharides

Proteins are what we are made up of. They are composed of single units called Amino acids. They are often referred to as ‘the building blocks’. Some of the food we eat, like eggs, meat, fish, pulses etc. are also proteins. So how does the body use them? We eat the proteins, break them down to amino acids and then combine them into the proteins we require. Sounds just like the building blocks of the Lego Toys. There are many more interesting facts hidden here.

i)Amino Acids
ii)Peptide Bonding between Amino Acids
iii)Protein Structure
iv)Denaturation and Protein Folding

We are more familiar with the names DNA and RNA which are in fact Nucleic acids. DNA is the genetic material. We know that it carries the heredity code but how is this information accessed and carried out? We also know that proteins are the building blocks but who takes care of the building process? All these questions will be answered when we learn more about Nucleic acids.

i)DNA and RNA
ii)DNA Double Helix

We already know how Synthetic polymers came into being. It is easy to identify synthetic polymers. They are all around you. Plastics, vinyl, nylon etc. are just some of them. Diving suits, sleeping bags, liquid glues, plastic bags, thin film wraps and the list goes on. These are all examples of synthetic polymers.

i)Types of Synthetic Organic Polymers
ii)Addition Reactions
iii)Condensation Reactions

Chemistry in the Real World

Chemistry is within us and all around us. When we eat, breathe or even sit down, chemical reactions take place. All matter is made of chemicals. So we can say that chemistry is the study of everything. Chemical reactions occur in cooking, cleaning, medicine and medical research, agriculture etc. We all know which chemicals are useful and which are harmful. So, we are actually chemists.
The atmosphere is compared to a blanket around the earth’s surface. It is a mixture of gases which we commonly refer to as air. The atmosphere is called a blanket because it behaves like one – it serves as a protective layer, keeping out extreme temperatures and harmful radiations like the UV rays. Nitrogen is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere, followed by oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and many more. There are lots more in the atmosphere than just gases and UV rays.

i)Layers of the Atmosphere
ii)The Aurora Borealis
iii)The Aurora Australia
iv)The Glow of Space Shuttles

This is a term we come across very often now. So, what is its significance? Pollution happens when something harmful is added to the environment – something that is dangerous or poisonous to the living things. It can be on land, in water, or in the air around us. Technology and development are good but we need to take care of the waste that is being generated. The earth is the only place we can call ‘home’ and we are destroying it day by day. What role do we play in pollution? Find out more.

i)Volcanoes
ii)Photochemical Smog
iii)The Greenhouse Effect
iv)Polar Ozone Holes
v)Radon
vi)CO and  CO2
vii)Formaldehyde

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